Mexico Marine Thesis – Variable Dates – 6 weeks (6 weeks marine only)

$900.00

This price represents a 20% deposit of the $4,500 expedition fee. Please see the dates and prices page on opwall.com for a list of what is and isn’t included, and the terms and conditions page for payment and cancellation schedules.

This expedition is also available as an 8 week long project running from 12th June to 6th August ($5,925). Please contact us directly if you are interested in this option.

Dive Option *

Dissertation Option *

Expedition Dates *

Category:

Product Description

ME146 Sea turtle nest site preferences and hatchling sex ratios

There are seven species of sea turtle in the world, all of which are either threatened or endangered. The beaches of Akumal (meaning “home of the turtles”) are the nesting ground for two of these species: the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). One of the major aims of the ongoing turtle conservation project is to ensure that the turtles have access to suitable nesting sites on the beaches. In order to do so, it is necessary to understand the nesting site preferences of the green and loggerhead turtles and to ascertain the nest characteristics associated with successful incubation. Investigation of turtle nesting will record the number and location of green and loggerhead turtle nests, noting their distance from the shore, habitat characteristics, their depth, temperature inside the nest, number of eggs laid and number of successful hatchlings. As turtles are reptiles, the temperature inside the nest during the incubation period determines the sex ratio of hatchlings. Males are produced at lower temperatures than females and with beach temperatures on the rise due to climate change, there is major concern that sex ratios are highly female-skewed. It is not possible to determine the sex of hatchlings without dissection, but sex ratios can be inferred from mean nest temperature recorded on HOBO data loggers inserted into the nest during nesting. Variation in likely sex ratios can then be linked to nest site characteristics to determine areas of the beach that are able to produce males. In addition, the sheer number of turtles attempting to nest in the Akumal area results in turtles digging up existing nests on the beach due to a lack of space to make new nests. For this reason, it is necessary to relocate some of the nests into beach hatcheries and thus ensure careful management of the density of nests in the hatchery and the amount of shade they receive to maintain correct nest temperatures to produce balanced sex ratios of hatchlings.

ME147 Effect of tourism on immature green turtle behaviour in Akumal Bay

Year-round you can find immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) feeding on the seagrasses in Akumal Bay. These turtles have become a popular tourist attraction and there is concern that both the number of tourists and the behaviour of tourists is affecting the behaviour and welfare of the turtles. Multiple studies of “swim with wild dolphin” based tourism has indicated that when the number of tourists gets too high, or the tourists attempt to touch them, the dolphins issue evasive responses to attempt to escape from the tourist and, if the tourism continues to maintain high numbers, the dolphins simply move their home range to areas inaccessible by tour boats. As the availability of healthy seagrasses in the Mexican Caribbean coastline is limited, the turtles in Akumal Bay may not have the option of leaving the area to avoid large numbers of tourists so the snorkel with turtle tours need to be strictly regulated. As Akumal Bay has just been declared a protected area, data is urgently required to determine the carrying capacity of snorkel based tourism. Research into green turtle behaviour will involve snorkelling with the turtles throughout the day to record their activity budgets and rates of evasive responses to tourists using focal animal sampling with continuous recording. Each turtle can be recognized individually and at the start of each focal sample the turtle will be photographed from various angles for subsequent identification from the turtle photo ID database. The number of tourists within a 5m radius of each turtle and the behaviour of these tourists (whether they abide by the rules and maintain a safe distance from the turtles or attempt to interact with them) will be recorded throughout each focal sample to determine the effect of tourism on turtle behaviour.

ME148 Immature green turtle foraging behaviour and seagrass abundance in Akumal Bay

There are three species of seagrass present in Akumal Bay: Thallassia testudinum, Siryngodium filiforme and Halodule wrightii. Ongoing monitoring of the foraging behaviour of the turtles has indicated a clear feeding preference for T. testudinum and unsurprisingly, ongoing monitoring of the seagrasses has indicated a decline in the abundance of T. testudinum. Immature green turtles naturally form large foraging groups and once a food patch has been depleted they move to a new area. However, limited availability of seagrasses in the Akumal area means that this may not be possible for the turtles in Akumal Bay and thus steps must be taken to sustainably manage the seagrasses. S. filiforme and H. wrightii seagrass remain abundant in Akumal Bay, but as turtle foraging on these grasses has been limited, the grasses lack digestible young shoots. Investigation into the state of the seagrasses and feeding behaviour of the turtles is therefore necessary to determine whether active management of the seagrasses (e.g. trimming the S. filiforme and H. wrightii to encourage new shoots to grow) is required to maintain a viable food supply for the turtles. Moreover, existing data shows that snorkel based tourism influences the movement patterns and foraging behaviour of the turtles resulting in heavy grazing of tourist-free areas and avoidance of seagrasses in areas where snorkel tours are prevalent. As Akumal Bay is now a protected area there is the option of re-zoning the bay to ensure that snorkel tours do not prevent turtles from accessing important areas of seagrasses, but data relating to seagrass coverage and turtle foraging behaviour is required to determine the specific location of tourist-free areas. Research into green turtle behaviour will involve snorkelling with the turtles throughout the day to record their foraging patterns. Seagrass quadrats surveys will be used to determine the availability of the various species of seagrasses, which can then be compared to turtle feeding preferences obtained from behavioural observations.

ME149 A comparison of pristine and degraded mangroves in Akumal and the impact of mangrove degradation on adjacent seagrasses and coral reefs

Mangrove forests are highly productive marine ecosystems that are essential for the health of adjacent ecosystems e.g. seagrass beds and coral reefs. Yet, as much as 1 – 2% of the global mangrove forests are lost per year. Mangroves draw down atmospheric CO2 sequester and trap fine sediments, facilitate vital biodiversity mechanisms (e.g. fish nurseries) and improve fishery productivity. Despite the obvious importance of mangroves, mangrove forests in the Yucatan Peninsula have been under considerable anthropogenic impact from harvesting, causing a reduction in important habitat and biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and the productivity of adjacent seagrass and coral reef ecosystems. If the ecosystem services that mangroves provide can be quantified, then there is scope to develop a mangrove equivalent of the REDD programme in which fishing communities could receive economic investment in exchange for continued protection of the mangroves. Projects could therefore focus on a comparison of the structure, function, and faunal diversity of pristine and degraded mangroves, or an investigation of wood degradation processes across mangroves of differing quality. In addition, projects could investigate health and diversity of seagrasses and coral reefs in relation to the level of degradation of adjacent mangroves. Belt transects and permanent plots will be used to record tree composition, basal areas and tree densities. Biodiversity assessments will be conducted by investigation of the available mangrove substrata. Snorkel and dive based transect and quadrat surveys may be used to assess diversity and coverage of seagrasses, hard corals and algae.

ME150 Understanding the non-conventional cenotemangrove forest system

The Yucatan Peninsula is formed of limestone karst substrate that was once coral reef. As limestone is porous, rainwater seeps through the rock surface to form an extensive network of underground rivers accessed from the surface by sink holes, known locally as cenotes. Mangrove forests associated with cenotes in coastal regions are not new, but research of them is. This novel project aims to investigate the driving forces behind the structure and function of these unusual mangrove ecosystems and to investigate differences of animal community structure in comparison with coastal mangrove forests. The majority of mangrove animals exploit the available hard substrata within mangrove ecosystems. Areas such as mangrove prop roots and in particular large wood detritus (LWD) are favourable for most mangrove fauna, but nothing is known about the organisms that process the fixed carbon in cenote mangrove forests. Projects may highlight new and unreported information from forest structure and function, to mangrove fauna diversity and niche separation. Continuous belt transects and plots will be used to establish the tree structure, composition and basal areas with the cenote mangrove forests. Biodiversity assessments of the fauna upon mangrove roots, substratum and LWD will be made, and animal observations will be employed. Degradation processes of LWD will be recorded in the forests and compared with those from conventional mangrove forests.

ME151 The conservation of and improvement of Caribbean coral reefs: Reef restoration through plantation of Acropora cervicornis

Acropora is one of the most important Caribbean corals in terms of its contribution to reef growth and fishery habitat. Acroporid species are the Caribbean’s fastest growing reef-building corals. Since the 1970s, Caribbean acroporid populations have been decimated by disease outbreak. Their recovery has been impaired by the general poor health of Caribbean coastal ecosystems. In Akumal this decline is estimated at >90%, although it is unlikely that this truly represents the loss of coral due to the lack of reliable data. Coral restoration is increasingly considered to be a viable recovery plan. In Akumal preliminary research has been conducted to trial success rates of coral nurseries where Acropora cervicornis is grown, propagated and then transplanted onto the reef. The methods used are minimally invasive and require cheap materials. The trials have proved to be successful, with doubling of live tissue from dying rescued fragments within one year, combined with successful fusion and growth of transplanted colonies onto the reef. In order to measure the impact of coral restoration work, it is essential to develop baseline data from which to measure the successful colonies that have grown as a result of the restoration work. Using continuous belt transects on the reef, the mapping of acroporid colonies will be conducted to assess the distribution, abundance and surface area of the colonies. Coral frags will be out-planted at various distances from the mother colony to measure successful recruitment and growth at different sites from that of the mother colony. Reef fish assemblages, particularly juveniles, will be assessed on reefs with none or few acroporid colonies. Established acroporid frags will then be planted onto those reefs and re-assessed. These data will be compared to reefs with a high density of acroprids.

Additional Information

Country

Mexico

Duration

6 Weeks

Marine Weeks

6 Marine Weeks

Expedition Type

Thesis/Dissertation

Terrestrial Weeks

No Terrestrial

Terms and Conditions

BOOKING CONDITIONS

The following conditions form the basis of your contract:

1) MAKING A BOOKING AND PAYING YOUR DEPOSIT AND FINAL BALANCE

A deposit of 10% per person must be paid when booking and accepting these terms and conditions. In order to help spread the payments we require a further 10% payment 150 days prior to your expedition start date, and 20% payment due by March 31st in the same year as your expedition. If you are booking within 8 weeks of your intended departure date then we require full payment. Should we be unable to process your booking for any reason then your deposit will be returned to you.We must have the full balance payment at least 8 weeks (56 days) prior to departure.

There is an early-payment discount available if you pay either 50% or more of the total sum owed, or 100% of the total sum owed, prior to the 150 day payment date. The discounts available are as follows:-

  • For 2 week expeditions, $25 discount for greater than 50% payment or $50 discount for 100% payment
  • For 4 week expeditions, $40 discount for greater than 50% payment or $80 discount for 100% payment
  • For 6 week expeditions, $60 discount for greater than 50% payment or $120 discount for 100% payment
  • For 8 week expeditions, $75 discount for greater than 50% payment or $150 discount for 100% payment

All correspondence will be sent to you at either of the addresses you enter at time of booking. In the event of the alteration or cancellation of a confirmed booking by you, conditions in section 3 will apply. Please note that the person completing the booking form undertakes full payment of all the expedition components booked, therefore should have the full consent of the person named on the form. Payment of your deposit confirms you comply with these booking conditions.

2) THE PRICE OF YOUR EXPEDITION AND SURCHARGES

While we reserve the right to amend prices upwards or downwards at any time, it is our policy to offer expeditions at a clear and firm price. However, the factors which may force us to surcharge you are government action, changes to the cost of currency or fuel – unless full payment is made six months or more prior to your departure date.

3) IF YOU NEED TO CANCEL YOUR BOOKING

Should you have to cancel your booking we ask that you advise the us promptly in writing or by email. The cancellation will take effect from the day the written confirmation is received. Cancellation will incur a $95 handling charge. Additional cancellation charges, which become effective more than 30 days after the date of booking*, are as follows:

Period Cancellation charge
More than 185 days before departure No further cancellation charges
185 days before expedition start date to 150 days before expedition start date Loss of 10% of total expedition costs
149 days before expedition start date to 70 days before expedition start date 20% of your total expedition costs
69 days before expedition start date to 42 days before expedition start date 40% of your total expedition costs
Less than 42 days before the expedition start date 100% of your total expedition costs

* this applies only to bookings taken before 1 March in the year of the expedition. Bookings taken after the 1 March in the year of expedition are subject to the cancellation charges as shown in the above table.

Note if you are doing a dissertation/thesis topic then you are able to cancel up to 15 April in the year of your expedition with no loss of deposit, if documentary evidence can be produced that your university will not permit you to undertake the dissertation or thesis topic chosen.

4) IF OPERATION WALLACEA CANCELS YOUR BOOKING

In the unlikely event of Operation Wallacea deeming travel to your particular destination unsafe for any reason, more than 3 months before departure, we will provide a suitable alternative. As a result we are unable to refund any monies, beyond the conditions outlined above. We undertake not to cancel any expedition closer than 3 months to the expedition start date unless in exceptional circumstances such as war, riots, civil strife, industrial action so severe that alternative transport and accommodation cannot be provided, terrorist activity, natural and nuclear disaster, fire, adverse weather conditions, technical problems with transport and similar unforeseeable circumstances where compensation payments cannot be made.

5) IF OPERATION WALLACEA CHANGES YOUR BOOKING

We undertake not to make any significant changes to your booking. However since this is a field research project, from time to time certain aspects will change between the planning stages and the project delivery. These can include (but are not limited to) details of the accommodation, survey methods and transportation between sites. We will inform you of any significant changes and will provide a suitable alternative to the original project. Such changes will not constitute being offered a refund when a suitable alternative is made available.

6) IF YOU WANT TO TRANSFER YOUR BOOKING

If you want to transfer your booking to the following year or to another named person who does not currently hold a booking with Operation Wallacea then you need to obtain prior approval from the Opwall office. In the event that you make your decision to transfer after 1 January in the year of the expedition, then you need to pay an additional 10% to secure the transfer. If the decision is made before the 1 January in the year of the expedition then no further payments beyond the 10% deposit are required. No transfers are allowed after 1 April in the year of the original booked expedition. Only one transfer to a future year or of the named person per application is allowed and once that transfer is made then all monies paid would be forfeited in the event that the completer of the form wanted to cancel.

7) IF YOU WANT TO CHANGE YOUR BOOKING

If you decide to move on to another project or expedition, you can do this free of charge, capacity allowing, until 1 April of the year of your expedition. You will be asked to fill in a new booking form to confirm the change of project. If the project or expedition you want to move to is longer you will be invoiced for the difference in price. If it is shorter, your payment schedule will be adjusted to take the new total amount payable into account. If, following you confirming that you wish to change your booking, you should decide to cancel, cancellation charges will apply in line with your original booking rather than the new booking.

8) JURISDICTION AND LEGAL ASPECTS

Please note that when you have read the booking conditions above and completed the booking form, and when a confirmation invoice has been issued by or on behalf of us or the relevant supplier, you enter into a binding contract which will be governed and interpreted in accordance with the law of England and Wales. As a member of the Association of the Bonded Travel Organisers Trust Limited (ABTOT), an Association approved by the BIS, Operation Wallacea Ltd has provided a Bond to meet the requirements of the Package Travel, Package Holidays and Package Tours Regulations 1992. In the event of the Company’s insolvency this Bond provides security for all non-flight inclusive packages provided by Operation Wallacea Ltd. In the above circumstances, the following will apply:

  • A refund of your package pre-payments if you have not yet travelled; or
  • Transport costs back to the start point of the expedition and a refund of the unused portion of the package price if you have already travelled

9) INSURANCE

Operation Wallacea has insurance in place to provide medical and repatriation cover up to £1million for all participants on the expedition. This insurance does not cover other insurable costs such as cancellation and curtailment of your expedition due to your ill-health, flight and travel delays, loss of personal baggage or theft of possessions etc. It is a condition of your booking with Operation Wallacea that you take out travel insurance to cover these items.

7) WHAT DOES THE BOOKING WITH OPERATION WALLACEA NOT INCLUDE?

  • Costs of flights and transport to and from the start and finish points of each expedition
  • Accommodation and food costs before or after the expedition start and end dates
  • Additional insurance cover beyond the £1 million expedition medical and evacuation insurance cover provided by Opwall
  • Costs of additional elective training (e.g. canopy access course, dive training beyond PADI Open Water)
  • Dive equipment rental
  • PIC cards and PADI training Manuals (or BSAC equivalents)
  • Local taxes
  • Park or Reserve entrance fees
  • Visa costs
  • Vaccination or prophylactic medicine costs