Mexico Terrestrial Thesis – Variable Dates – 6 weeks (6 weeks terrestrial only)

$900.00

This price represents a 20% deposit of the $4,500 expedition fee. Please see the dates and prices page on opwall.com for a list of what is and isn’t included, and the terms and conditions page for payment and cancellation schedules.

This expedition is also available as an 8 week long project running from 12th June to 6th August ($5,925). Please contact us directly if you are interested in this option.

Dissertation Option *

Expedition Dates *

Category:

Product Description

ME141 Bird diversity & distribution in relation to forest structure in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve has extremely high bird diversity with over 360 resident bird species, many of which are endemic. Due to the traditional farming methods of the Ancient Mayans and their direct descendants living in the buffer zone of the reserve, Calakmul contains a large expanse of old growth forest in the core zone, and old growth forest and regenerating forests of various ages in the buffer zone. In addition, there is a notable rainfall gradient from the north to the south of the reserve that results in a gradual change in forest structure and tree species composition. Diversity of forest dwelling birds generally decreases with forest disturbance, but a study from one buffer zone community in Calakmul unexpectedly found that both bird abundance and diversity remained constant across regenerating forests of various ages and old growth forest. As the first Mayan settlers arrived in the Calakmul region before the forest appeared (the climate was too dry to support forest until relatively recently), it is possible that the bird population has evolved with the Mayan farming methods and thus the birds have adapted to using all forest types. The abundance and diversity of birds in Calakmul can be monitored using point counts and mist netting at multiple research locations in the reserve. These data will be collected across a range of transects in the reserve that encompass different habitat characteristics. Each transect contains a number of 20m x 20m habitat survey plots that provide detailed information of the forest characteristics in the area. In each of these plots, tree species will be identified, tree DBH, understorey vegetation, canopy openness, and the number of saplings will be measured. Bird data from each transect can then be related to mean habitat characteristics for the transect and comparisons between bird diversity and habitat variables may be investigated.

ME142 Herpetofaunal species distribution and niche partitioning in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

The herpetofauna of the Yucatan Peninsula is diverse and contains a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved to adapt to the unique forest habitat. Despite this, the herpetofauna of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is poorly studied. There is a notable rainfall gradient from the north to the south of the reserve, which significantly affects tree diversity and forest structure. The only source of water in the reserve comes from lakes known as aguadas. Some are permanent, but the majority are temporary that form on low lying ground during the rainy season. This variation in habitat is likely to have a notable effect on the abundance and distribution of herpetofauna within Calakmul. Herpetofauna surveys will be conducted at five different research locations within the reserve that have notable differences in habitat type. Within each location, herpetofauna will be surveyed using pitfall traps and diurnal and nocturnal active searching along transects. Students will also assist with habitat surveys in which tree diversity, tree DBH, understorey vegetation, leaf litter and sapling density are recorded in a selection of 20m x 20m forest plots at each survey location. Research projects could therefore investigate differences in herpetofaunal species assemblages between different sites and in relation to distance from aguadas. These projects could incorporate a wide range of species or could focus on specific groups (e.g. anurans, lizards, snakes). Alternatively, projects could focus on herpetofauna community structure in aguadas of varying sizes. These projects would involve timed searches of the aguadas for amphibian species combined with trapping surveys for lizards, snakes, turtles and crocodiles.

ME143 Large mammal abundance and distribution patterns in relation to habitat characteristics and hunting in the Mayan forest

Large mammal density at Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is very high and the forest is one of the last remaining strongholds of endangered mammals such as spider monkeys, jaguar and tapir. Although these species are not hunted, indigenous people are allowed to hunt other large mammals such as peccary and deer (which are the preferred prey of jaguar and puma). The tropical semi-deciduous forest in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is unusual in that areas close to the Mayan Ruins contain unusually high densities of large fruiting trees (the result of Ancient Mayan agroforestry) in comparison to other areas. As there are no rivers or streams in the reserve, forest structure is also heavily affected by distance from the few permanent water sources in the reserve known as aguadas. The aim of the large mammal research project is to investigate the relationship between habitat characteristics and large mammal abundance and ranging, and to investigate the impact of hunting of preferred prey species on the abundance and distribution of felids. Mammal abundance data will be collected along a series of forest transects using distance sampling (based on visual sightings of more commonly encountered species such as primates) and patch occupancy sampling (based on tracks and signs of more elusive species such as tapir and jaguar). Additional data will be collected using camera traps enabling comparison of density estimates produced by the different types of surveys. The survey transects are distributed across a wide range of forest habitat types and each transect contains a number of 20m x 20m habitat survey plots. In each of these plots, tree species will be identified, and DBH and tree height will be measured. Large mammal data from each transect can then be related to mean habitat characteristics for the transect and comparisons between mammal abundance and habitat variables may be investigated.

ME144 Spider monkey grouping patterns, habitat use and behaviour

Spider monkeys are frugivorous primates that live in complex societies characterised by high degree fission-fusion dynamics whereby members of the same community are rarely all together and spend their time in fluid subgroups that constantly change in size and composition. Subgroup size is adjusted to food patch size and when fruit is abundant the spider monkeys can be found in large groups. Group size and composition can have a notable effect on activity budgets, ranging and social interactions, particularly as there are notable sex-differences in the quality of social relationships and the type of social interactions exchanged by males and female. A large community of spider monkeys in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve has been studied each summer since 2013. The summer months are associated with the onset of rainy season and high fruit production resulting in large subgroups of spider monkeys. However in 2014 the reserve suffered a severe drought and during this time virtually no fruit was available. Using the long-term data set students can investigate changes to ranging patterns, subgroup composition and the associated effect on rates of social interactions in relation to rainfall patterns and food availability. Another project could focus on spider monkey activity and habitat use. Spider monkeys can have large home ranges that encompass different forest types, but it is not clear if they use all forest types for food and shelter. An investigation of how spider monkeys use the different forest types will determine whether spider monkey populations could survive in disturbed areas with limited availability of high forest. Activity budget data will be recorded using instantaneous scan sampling, noting the behaviour of each individual in view, the GPS location and forest type. Subgroup composition will be recorded in real time throughout the day and all occurrences of social interactions will be recorded noting the individuals involved, behaviour and context.

ME145 Bat abundance, diversity and distribution patterns in relation to habitat characteristics of the Mayan forest

Bat abundance in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is very high due to the presence of multiple caves that act as roost sites. There are over 90 bat species that occur in tropical Mexico, but the presence of the majority of these species in Calakmul remains unclear due to lack of standardized studies. Moreover, bat diversity is unlikely to be uniform throughout the reserve due to changes in the habitat resulting from vicinity to ruins sites (Mayan ruins contain unusually high densities of large fruiting trees as a result of Ancient Mayan agroforestry) and the limited water supply in the reserve. Students will investigate bat abundance and diversity using mist net surveys in conjunction with bat detectors that record bat vocalizations. These combined methods will provide data on the carnivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous bats that are frequently caught in the nets and the insectivorous bats that have such fine-tuned echolocation that they can detect mist nets and are therefore virtually impossible to capture. These data will be collected across a range of transects in the reserve that encompass different habitat characteristics. Each transect contains a number of 20m x 20m habitat survey plots that provide detailed information of the forest characteristics in the area. In each of these plots, tree species will be identified, tree DBH, understorey vegetation, canopy openness, and the number of saplings will be measured. Bat data from each transect can then be related to mean habitat characteristics for the transect and comparisons between bat diversity and habitat variables may be investigated.

Additional Information

Country

Mexico

Duration

6 Weeks

Marine Weeks

No Marine

Expedition Type

Thesis/Dissertation

Terrestrial Weeks

6 Terrestrial Weeks

Terms and Conditions

BOOKING CONDITIONS

The following conditions form the basis of your contract:

1) MAKING A BOOKING AND PAYING YOUR DEPOSIT AND FINAL BALANCE

A deposit of 10% per person must be paid when booking and accepting these terms and conditions. In order to help spread the payments we require a further 10% payment 150 days prior to your expedition start date, and 20% payment due by March 31st in the same year as your expedition. If you are booking within 8 weeks of your intended departure date then we require full payment. Should we be unable to process your booking for any reason then your deposit will be returned to you.We must have the full balance payment at least 8 weeks (56 days) prior to departure.

There is an early-payment discount available if you pay either 50% or more of the total sum owed, or 100% of the total sum owed, prior to the 150 day payment date. The discounts available are as follows:-

  • For 2 week expeditions, $25 discount for greater than 50% payment or $50 discount for 100% payment
  • For 4 week expeditions, $40 discount for greater than 50% payment or $80 discount for 100% payment
  • For 6 week expeditions, $60 discount for greater than 50% payment or $120 discount for 100% payment
  • For 8 week expeditions, $75 discount for greater than 50% payment or $150 discount for 100% payment

All correspondence will be sent to you at either of the addresses you enter at time of booking. In the event of the alteration or cancellation of a confirmed booking by you, conditions in section 3 will apply. Please note that the person completing the booking form undertakes full payment of all the expedition components booked, therefore should have the full consent of the person named on the form. Payment of your deposit confirms you comply with these booking conditions.

2) THE PRICE OF YOUR EXPEDITION AND SURCHARGES

While we reserve the right to amend prices upwards or downwards at any time, it is our policy to offer expeditions at a clear and firm price. However, the factors which may force us to surcharge you are government action, changes to the cost of currency or fuel – unless full payment is made six months or more prior to your departure date.

3) IF YOU NEED TO CANCEL YOUR BOOKING

Should you have to cancel your booking we ask that you advise the us promptly in writing or by email. The cancellation will take effect from the day the written confirmation is received. Cancellation will incur a $95 handling charge. Additional cancellation charges, which become effective more than 30 days after the date of booking*, are as follows:

Period Cancellation charge
More than 185 days before departure No further cancellation charges
185 days before expedition start date to 150 days before expedition start date Loss of 10% of total expedition costs
149 days before expedition start date to 70 days before expedition start date 20% of your total expedition costs
69 days before expedition start date to 42 days before expedition start date 40% of your total expedition costs
Less than 42 days before the expedition start date 100% of your total expedition costs

* this applies only to bookings taken before 1 March in the year of the expedition. Bookings taken after the 1 March in the year of expedition are subject to the cancellation charges as shown in the above table.

Note if you are doing a dissertation/thesis topic then you are able to cancel up to 15 April in the year of your expedition with no loss of deposit, if documentary evidence can be produced that your university will not permit you to undertake the dissertation or thesis topic chosen.

4) IF OPERATION WALLACEA CANCELS YOUR BOOKING

In the unlikely event of Operation Wallacea deeming travel to your particular destination unsafe for any reason, more than 3 months before departure, we will provide a suitable alternative. As a result we are unable to refund any monies, beyond the conditions outlined above. We undertake not to cancel any expedition closer than 3 months to the expedition start date unless in exceptional circumstances such as war, riots, civil strife, industrial action so severe that alternative transport and accommodation cannot be provided, terrorist activity, natural and nuclear disaster, fire, adverse weather conditions, technical problems with transport and similar unforeseeable circumstances where compensation payments cannot be made.

5) IF OPERATION WALLACEA CHANGES YOUR BOOKING

We undertake not to make any significant changes to your booking. However since this is a field research project, from time to time certain aspects will change between the planning stages and the project delivery. These can include (but are not limited to) details of the accommodation, survey methods and transportation between sites. We will inform you of any significant changes and will provide a suitable alternative to the original project. Such changes will not constitute being offered a refund when a suitable alternative is made available.

6) IF YOU WANT TO TRANSFER YOUR BOOKING

If you want to transfer your booking to the following year or to another named person who does not currently hold a booking with Operation Wallacea then you need to obtain prior approval from the Opwall office. In the event that you make your decision to transfer after 1 January in the year of the expedition, then you need to pay an additional 10% to secure the transfer. If the decision is made before the 1 January in the year of the expedition then no further payments beyond the 10% deposit are required. No transfers are allowed after 1 April in the year of the original booked expedition. Only one transfer to a future year or of the named person per application is allowed and once that transfer is made then all monies paid would be forfeited in the event that the completer of the form wanted to cancel.

7) IF YOU WANT TO CHANGE YOUR BOOKING

If you decide to move on to another project or expedition, you can do this free of charge, capacity allowing, until 1 April of the year of your expedition. You will be asked to fill in a new booking form to confirm the change of project. If the project or expedition you want to move to is longer you will be invoiced for the difference in price. If it is shorter, your payment schedule will be adjusted to take the new total amount payable into account. If, following you confirming that you wish to change your booking, you should decide to cancel, cancellation charges will apply in line with your original booking rather than the new booking.

8) JURISDICTION AND LEGAL ASPECTS

Please note that when you have read the booking conditions above and completed the booking form, and when a confirmation invoice has been issued by or on behalf of us or the relevant supplier, you enter into a binding contract which will be governed and interpreted in accordance with the law of England and Wales. As a member of the Association of the Bonded Travel Organisers Trust Limited (ABTOT), an Association approved by the BIS, Operation Wallacea Ltd has provided a Bond to meet the requirements of the Package Travel, Package Holidays and Package Tours Regulations 1992. In the event of the Company’s insolvency this Bond provides security for all non-flight inclusive packages provided by Operation Wallacea Ltd. In the above circumstances, the following will apply:

  • A refund of your package pre-payments if you have not yet travelled; or
  • Transport costs back to the start point of the expedition and a refund of the unused portion of the package price if you have already travelled

9) INSURANCE

Operation Wallacea has insurance in place to provide medical and repatriation cover up to £1million for all participants on the expedition. This insurance does not cover other insurable costs such as cancellation and curtailment of your expedition due to your ill-health, flight and travel delays, loss of personal baggage or theft of possessions etc. It is a condition of your booking with Operation Wallacea that you take out travel insurance to cover these items.

7) WHAT DOES THE BOOKING WITH OPERATION WALLACEA NOT INCLUDE?

  • Costs of flights and transport to and from the start and finish points of each expedition
  • Accommodation and food costs before or after the expedition start and end dates
  • Additional insurance cover beyond the £1 million expedition medical and evacuation insurance cover provided by Opwall
  • Costs of additional elective training (e.g. canopy access course, dive training beyond PADI Open Water)
  • Dive equipment rental
  • PIC cards and PADI training Manuals (or BSAC equivalents)
  • Local taxes
  • Park or Reserve entrance fees
  • Visa costs
  • Vaccination or prophylactic medicine costs